RESEARCH

I. INTRODUCTION

Ever since the dawn of human life on this planet, Man has always tried to understand Nature, his own place in the scheme of Creation and the purpose of Life itself. In this quest for Truth, spanning many centuries and diverse civilizations, organized religion has shaped human life and, to a large extent, has determined the course of history. While some religions have been based on written text, claimed by their followers to be divinely inspired, others have relied solely on human experience. Al-Qur’an, the main source of the Islamic faith, is a book believed by its followers, the Muslims, to be completely of Divine origin. Muslims also believe that it contains guidance for all humankind. Since the message of the Qur’an is believed to be for all times, it should be relevant to every age. But does the Qur’an pass this test? In this booklet, I intend to give an objective analysis of the Muslim belief regarding the Divine origin of the Qur’an, particularly in the light of established scientific discoveries. There was a time, in the history of world civilization, when ‘miracles’, or what were perceived to be miracles, took precedence over human reason and logic. Of course, the normal definition of ‘miracle’ is simply, anything that takes place out of the normal course of life and for which humankind has no explanation.

Literature and poetry have been instruments of human expression and creativity, in all cultures. The world also witnessed an age when literature and poetry occupied pride of position, similar to that now enjoyed by science and technology. Even non-Muslim scholars agree that the Qur’an is Arabic literature par excellence – that it is the best Arabic literature on the face of the earth. The Qur’an challenges mankind to produce the likes of it:

“And if ye are in doubt as to what We have revealed from time to time to Our servant, then produce a Surah like thereunto; and call your witnesses or helpers (if there are any) besides Allah, if your (doubts) are true. “But if ye cannot – and of a surety you cannot – then fear the Fire whose fuel is Men and Stones – which is prepared for those who reject Faith.” [Al-Qur’an 2:23-24]

The challenge of the Qur’an, is to produce a single Surah (chapter) like the Surahs it contains. The same challenge is repeated in the Qur’an several times. The challenge to produce a Surah, which, in beauty, eloquence, depth and meaning is at least somewhat similar to a Qur’anic Surah remains unmet to this day. A modern rational man, however, would never accept a religious scripture which says, in the best possible poetic language, that the world is flat. This is because we live in an age, where human reason, logic and science are given primacy. Not many would accept the Qur’an’s extraordinarily beautiful language, as proof of its Divine origin. Any scripture claiming to be a divine revelation must also be acceptable on the strength of its own reason and logic. According to the famous physicist and Nobel Prize winner, Albert Einstein, “Science without religion is lame. Religion without science is blind.” Let us therefore study the Qur’an, and analyze whether the Qur’an and Modern Science are compatible or incompatible? The Qur’an is not a book of Science but a book of ‘Signs’, i.e. Aayaats. There are more than six thousand ‘Signs’ in the Qur’an of which more than a thousand deal with hard core Science. We all know that many a times Science takes a ‘U-turn’. In this book I have considered only established scientific facts and not hypotheses and theories based on mere assumptions and not backed by proof.

A. PROBLEM STATEMENT

This research will ask a few problems to research. Firstly problem which I discuss in my research it are why to connected between modern science and The Holy Quran?, this question very important in my research because most mankind ignorant in Quranic teach and knowledge’s . Second problems statement I will discuss who the passion Islamic scholar to recognize Quranic Science Scientifically? Not much Islamic scholar effort to recognize Quranic Science Scientifically. Third problem statement it is what the view of Orientalises about Science in perspective of Quranic View?. The orientalist very vital force effort to research science in perspective Quraniv view. Fourt problem statement in my research it is what the example Science according quranic view?. Fifth problem statement what mean inimitability ( I’JAZ) of The Quran?. Sixth problem statement could it be a coincidence that all this recently discovered scientific information from different fields was mentioned in the Qur’an, which was revealed fourteen centuries ago?. Seventh problem statement could this Qur’an have been authored by Muhammad (pbuh) or by any other human being?

B. RATIONAL FOR RESEARCH

The rational for this research it is to reveal secret miracle The Holy Quran because, most secret in Holy Qur’an exist but most people don’t know ala scientifically because not making to study . The rational for this research also why to connected between modern science and The Holy Quran especially in science aspects. This research will give new information science according to The Holy Quran to science scholar in the world. This research also try to connected The Holy Quran and modern science according rational thinking. This research also try to development of The Quranic Science and progress this information in the world.

C. HYPOTHESIS

The hypothesis for this research, the Holy Quran an order and rules from Allah (SWT) to all mankind and the Holy Qur’an very congruent to mankind life because its not came from mankind but from God. Most Islamic mankind ignorant the Holy Quran miracles. Most Non-Muslim Scientist astonished along with the Holy Quran Miracles. Allah (SWT) very knows all God’ creatures. Not own hesitation to correctness the Holy Quran. A lot example science event congruent along with Holy Quran.

D. DEFINITION OF TERMS

The scientific miracles in the Holy Quran

The Quran is the miraculous, inimitable, indestructible, preserved and infallible word of Allah (SWT). Revealed to Muhammad (S.A.A.S) the last of the prophet and the messengers. It was revealed thought the archangel Jibril, Preserved in Al-masahif, Transmitted to us gradually and by mutawatir Beginning with the opening chapter entitled surah al-Fatihah and concluding with surah an-Nas The Qur’an is the literal word of god, which He revealed to His Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) though the Angel Gabriel[1]. It was memorized by Muhammad (PBUH), who then dictated it to his Companions[2]. They, in turn, memorized it, wrote it down, and reviewed it with the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Moreover, the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) reviewed the Qur’an with the Angel Gabriel once each year and twice in the last year of his life. From the time the Qur’an was revealed, until this day, there has always been a huge number of Muslim who have memorized all of the Qur’an, letter by letter, some of them have even been able to memorize all of the Qur’an by the age of ten. Not one letter of the Qur’an has been over the centuries[3].

Definition of science: The study of and knowledge about the physical world and natural laws[4]. Modern science has discovered a lot about the origin of life. fact of knowledge; knowledge systematized knowledge derived from observation, study, and experimentation carried on in order to determine the nature or principles of what is being studied any specific branch of scientific knowledge, esp. one concerned with establishing and systematizing facts, principles, and methods, as by experiments and hypothesis[5].

E. SUMMARY

The Quran, which was revealed was fourteen centuries ago, mentioned facts only recently discovered or proven by scientist. This proves without doubt that the Quran must be the literal word of God, revealed by Him to the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) or by any other human being. This also proves that Muhammad (SAW) is truly a prophet sent by God. It is beyond reason that anyone fourteen hundred years ago would have known these facts discovered or proven only recently with advanced equipment and sophisticated scientific methods. The relationship between Science and Islam is a matter of controversy. In the Muslim world, many believe that modern science was first developed in the Muslim world rather than in Europe and Western countries, that “all the wealth of knowledge in the world has actually emanated from Muslim civilization,” and what people call “the scientific method“, is actually “the Islamic method.[6] In complete contrast, others worry that the contemporary Muslim world suffers from a “profound lack of scientific understanding,” and lament that, for example, in countries like Pakistan even post-graduate physics students have been known to blame earthquakes on “sinfulness, moral laxity, deviation from the Islamic true path,” while “only a couple of muffled voices supported the scientific view that earthquakes are a natural phenomenon unaffected by human activity.[7]

The development of scientific thought and knowledge has caused differing reactions among Muslims. In the Muslim world today, most of the focus on the relation between Islam and science involves interpretations of the Quran (and sometimes the Sunna) that claim to show these sources make prescient statements about the nature of the universe, biological development and other phenomena later confirmed by scientific research, and proof of the divine origin of the Qur’an. This effort has been criticized by some scientists and philosophers as containing logical fallacies.[8]

II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE.

View and Opinion From Non Muslim Scientists

1. Professor Alfred Kroner[9] Professor Alfred said :

“Thinking about many of these questions and thinking where Muhammad came from, he was after all a Bedouin. I think it is almost impossible that he could have known about things like the common origin of the universe, because scientists have only found out within the last few years with very complicated and advanced technological methods that this is the case.”

He also said: “Somebody who did not know something about nuclear physics 1400 years ago could not, I think, be in a position to find out from his own mind for instance that the earth and the heavens had the same origin, or many others of the questions that we have discussed here.”

2. Dr. Joe Leigh Simpson [10]is the Chairman of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Professor of Molecular and Human Genetics at the Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

“It follows, I think, that not only there is no conflict between genetics and religion but, in fact, religion can guide science by adding revelation to some of the traditional scientific approaches, that there exist statements in the Quran shown centuries later to be valid, which support knowledge in the Quran having been derived from God.”

3. Dr. Gerald C. Goeringer[11] is Course Director and Associate Professor of Medical Embryology at the Department of Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA. During the Eighth Saudi Medical Conference in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Professor Goeringer stated the following in the presentation of his research paper.

“In a relatively few aayahs (Quranic verses) is contained a rather comprehensive description of human development from the time of commingling of the gametes through organogenesis. No such distinct and complete record of human development, such as classification, terminology, and description, existed previously. In most, if not all, instances, this description antedates by many centuries the recording of the various stages of human embryonic and fetal development recorded in the traditional scientific literature.”

4. Keith L. Moore[12] is a professor emeritus in the division of anatomy (department of surgery), former Chair of anatomy and associate dean for Basic Medical Sciences (Faculty of Medicine) at the University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

“It has been a great pleasure for me to help clarify statements in the Qur’an about human development. It is clear to me that these statements must have come to Muhammad from God, or Allah, because most of this knowledge was not discovered until many centuries later. This proves to me that Muhammad must have been a messenger of God or Allah”.

5. Dr. E. Marshall Johnson[13] is Professor Emeritus of Anatomy and Developmental Biology at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. There, for 22 years he was Professor of Anatomy, the Chairman of the Department of Anatomy, and the Director of the Daniel Baugh Institute. He was also the President of the Teratology Society.

“The Quran describes not only the development of external form, but emphasizes also the internal stages, the stages inside the embryo, of its creation and development, emphasizing major events recognized by contemporary science.”

6. Professor Tejatat Tejasen[14] is the Chairman of the Department of Anatomy at Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. Previously, he was the Dean of the Faculty of Medicine at the same university.

“During the last three years, I became interested in the Quran…. From my study and what I have learned from this conference, I believe that everything that has been recorded in the Quran fourteen hundred years ago must be the truth, that can be proved by the scientific means. Since the Prophet Muhammad could neither read nor write, Muhammad must be a messenger who relayed this truth, which was revealed to him as an enlightenment by the one who is eligible [as the] creator. This creator must be God”

7. Dr. T. V. N. Persaud[15] is Professor of Anatomy, Professor of Pediatrics and Child Health, and Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences at the University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. There, he was the Chairman of the Department of Anatomy for 16 years.

“As a scientist, I can only deal with things which I can specifically see. I can understand embryology and developmental biology. I can understand the words that are translated to me from the Quran. As I gave the example before, if I were to transpose myself into that era, knowing what I knew today and describing things, I could not describe the things which were described”

8. Dr. William W. Hay[16] is a well-known marine scientist. He is Professor of Geological Sciences at the University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA. He was formerly the Dean of the Rosenstein School of Marine and Atmospheric Science at the University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA.

“I find it very interesting that this sort of information is in the ancient scriptures of the Holy Quran, and I have no way of knowing where they would come from, but I think it is extremely interesting that they are there and that this work is going on to discover it, the meaning of some of the passages.”

9. Dr. Yoshihide Kozai[17] is Professor Emeritus at Tokyo University, Hongo, Tokyo, Japan, and was the Director of the National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo, Japan.

“I am very much impressed by finding true astronomical facts in [the] Quran, and for us the modern astronomers have been studying very small pieces of the universe. We’ve concentrated our efforts for understanding of [a] very small part. Because by using telescopes, we can see only very few parts [of] the sky without thinking [about the] whole universe. So, by reading [the] Quran and by answering to the questions, I think I can find my future way for investigation of the universe.”

10. From The Qur’an and Modern Science, by Dr. Maurice Bucaille..

MACKSOOD AFTAB SAY:

Modern scientific theory today finds itself quite close to the Qur’an. There are at least two reasons behind this observation. The first is the lack of inconsistencies between the Qur’an and observable natural phenomena. Science has not been able to produce theories or experiments that fundamentally contradict the Qur’an.

11. From Toward Understanding Islam

AL MAUDUDI SAYS:

The reader Holy Quran may find all this of philosophical or metaphysical questions; we miss the familiar expressions and terminology of formal logic and philosophy. Cultural and political matters, or questions pertaining to man’s social and economic life, are discussed in a way very different from that usual in works of social sciences. Juristic principles and legal injunctions are elucidated, but quite differently from the manner of conventional works”.

12. Some rejected modern science as corrupt foreign thought, considering it incompatible with Islamic teachings, and in their view, the only remedy for the stagnancy of Islamic societies would be the strict following of Islamic teachings. Other thinkers in the Muslim world saw science as the only source of real enlightenment and advocated the complete adoption of modern science. In their view, the only remedy for the stagnation of Muslim societies would be the mastery of modern science and the replacement of the religious worldview by the scientific worldview. The majority of faithful Muslim scientists tried to adapt Islam to the findings of modern science; they can be categorized in the following subgroups: (a) Some Muslim thinkers attempted to justify modern science on religious grounds. Their motivation was to encourage Muslim societies to acquire modern knowledge and to safeguard their societies from the criticism of Orientalists and Muslim intellectuals. (b) Others tried to show that all important scientific discoveries had been predicted in the Qur’an and Islamic tradition and appealed to modern science to explain various aspects of faith. (c) Yet other scholars advocated a re-interpretation of Islam. In their view, one must try to construct a new theology that can establish a viable relation between Islam and modern science. The Indian scholar, Sayyid Ahmad Khan, sought a theology of nature through which one could re-interpret the basic principles of Islam in the light of modern science. (d) Then there were some Muslim scholars who believed that empirical science had reached the same conclusions that prophets had been advocating several thousand years ago. The revelation had only the privilege of prophecy. Finally, some Muslim philosophers separated the findings of modern science from its philosophical attachments. Thus, while they praised the attempts of Western scientists for the discovery of the secrets of nature, they warned against various empiricist and materialistic interpretations of scientific findings. Scientific knowledge can reveal certain aspects of the physical world, but it should not be identified with the alpha and omega of knowledge. Rather, it has to be integrated into a metaphysical framework—consistent with the Muslim worldview—in which higher levels of knowledge are recognized and the role of science in bringing us closer to God is fulfilled.[18]

13. Whether Islamic culture has promoted or hindered scientific advancement is disputed. Islamists such as Sayyid Qutb argue that since “Islam appointed” Muslims “as representatives of God and made them responsible for learning all the sciences[19].

14. science cannot but prosper in a society of true Muslims. Many “classical and modern [sources] agree that the Qur’an condones, even encourages the acquisition of science and scientific knowledge, and urges humans to reflect on the natural phenomena as signs of God’s creation.” Some scientific instruments produced in classical times in the Islamic world were inscribed with Qur’anic citations. Most Muslims agree that doing science is an act of religious merit, even a collective duty of the Muslim community.[20]

15. Others say traditional interpretations of Islam are not compatible with the development of science. Author Rodney Stark, explains Islam’s lag behind the West in scientific advancement after (roughly) 1500 AD to opposition by traditional ulema to efforts to formulate systematic explanation of natural phenomenon with “natural laws.” They believed such laws were blasphemous because they limit “Allah’s freedom to act” as He wishes. This principle was enshrined in aya 14:4: “Allah sendeth whom He will astray, and guided whom He will,” which (they believed) applied to all of creation not just humanity.[21]

16. This believe is, however, arguable in the Muslim world, while some support it, other Muslim scholars oppose the believe, claiming that the Qur’an is not a book of science; al-Biruni, one of the most celebrated Muslim scientists of the classical period, assigned to the Qur’an a separate and autonomous realm of its own and held that the Qur’an “does not interfere in the business of science nor does it infringe on the realm of science[22].

METHODS RESEARCH

The biggest portion my research utilize library research especially from new books source, especially Islamic Science University of Malaysia (ISUM) library, National University of Malaysia (UKM) library and internet sources. Data collection and all information about quranic scientific I take away from classic scripture and classic books in Islamic religion. Data collection and any information about science I take away from modernist science books from west and east which connection with the view of the quranic science. I use Non-experimental research type historical.

There is no question that historical research comes with some significant shortcomings compared with other methods of doing research in the social and behavioral sciences.

IMPLICATIONS AND LIMITATIONS

IMPLICATIONS

The implication of this research. Much implication which help me in provide and prepare this research. Especially from new books source, especially Islamic Science University of Malaysia (ISUM) library, National University of Malaysia (UKM) library and internet sources and other persons. My lecture Madam Mashitah Bt. Sulaiman from Centre For General Studies Islamic Science University of Malaysia (ISUM) also most assist me in provide and prepare this research.

LIMITATIONS

Limitations for this research. I just discuss for this research science perceptive in quranic views. I don’t overshoot for my research quaranic view in others knowledge excerpt science knowledge. I don’t discuss in my research abouts zoology in quranic view, anatomy in quranic view, genealogy in quranic view, philosophy in quranic view and others knowledges.

BIBLIOGHRAPHY

1. The Holy Quran, by Abdullah Yusuf Ali, new revised edition, 1989, published by Amana Corporation, Maryland, USA

2. Dr. Zakir Naik. The Quran and Modern Science “Compartible Or Incompartible”edition 1995 . Published. Islamic Research Foudation.

3. Translation of this Qur’anic verse is from the book “The Bible, the Qur’an and Science” by Dr. Maurice Bucaille.

4. A Chain of Miracles, by Harun Yahya, edition 1994, Published: Global Publishing, Istanbul-Turkey.

5. Honeybees- That Build Perfect Comb, By Harun Yahya, edition 2001, Published: Al-Risala Islamic Centre, New Delhi-India.

6. The Miracles Talking Birds, By Harun Yahya, Edition 2000, Published: Idara Isha’at-E-Diniyat (P) Ltd, New Delhi-India.

7. The Muslim’s Belief, by Muhammad al-Uthaimin, translated by Dr. Maneh al-Johani

8. Interpretation of the Meanings of The Noble Qur’an in the English Language, by Dr. Muhammad Al-Hilali and Dr. Muhammad Khan.

9. The Holy Bible, Containig the Old and New Testament (Revised Standard Version). 1971. New York: William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd.

10. The Islamic Affairs Department, The Embassy of Saudi Arabia, Washington, DC. 1989. Understanding Islam and the Muslims.

11. Makky. Ahmad A: and others. 1993. Ee’jaz Qur’an al-Kareem fee Wasf Anwa’ al-Riyah, al Sohob, al-Matar. Makkah: Commission on Scientific Sign of the Qur’an and Sunnah.

12. Moore, Keith L: A.A. Zindani: and others. 1987. Al-E’jaz al-Elmy fee al—Nasehah (The scientific Miracles in the Front of the Head). Makkah : Commission on Sciebtific sign of the Qur’an and Sunnah.

13. Moore, Keith L: and T.V.N. Persaud. 1993. The Developing Human, Clinically Oriented Embryology. 5th ed. Philladelphia: W.B. Saunders Company.

14. El-Naggar, Z.R. 1991. The Geologocal Concept of Mountains in the Qur’an. 1st ed. Herndon: Internasional Institute of Islamic Thought.

15. Neufeldt, V. 1994. Webster’s New World Dictionary. Third College edition. New York: Prentice Hall.

16. Al-Zarkashy. Badr Al-Deen. 1990. Al-Borhan fee Oloom A-Qur’an. 1st ed. Beirut: Dar El-Marefah.

17. The true religion, by Bilal Philips.

18. Mehdi Golshani, Does science offer evidence of a transcendent reality and purpose?, June 2003.

19. Stark, Rodney, The Victory of Reason, Random House, 2005.

20. Ahmad Dallal, Encyclopedia of the Qur’an, Quran and science.

21. Egyptian Muslim geologist Zaghloul El-Naggar quoted in Science and Islam in Conflict Discover magazine 06.21.2007.

22. Modern Europe’s industrial culture did not originate in Europe but in the Islamic universities of Andalusia and of the East..” From: Qutb, Sayyad, Milestones.

23. Islam and science – unhappy bedfellows“, Pervez Hoodbhoy, 2006. Formerly at http://www.globalagendamagazine.com/2006/Hoodbhoy.asp (dead link can be accessed in the Internet archive).

24. Cook, Michael, The Koran: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, (2000).

25. Ruthven, Malise, A Fury For God, London ; New York : Granta, (2002).

26. the entry Science in the Oxford English Dictionary ISBN 0-19-522217-2.

27. Ahmad Y Hassan and Donald Routledge Hill (1986), Islamic Technology: An Illustrated History, p. 282, Cambridge University Press.

28. Grant, Edward. The Foundations of Modern Science in the Middle Ages: Their Religious, Institutional, and Intellectual Contexts. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Pr., 1996.

29. Herbert Butterfield, The Origins of Modern Science, 1300-1800.

30. Thomas Kuhn, The Copernican Revolution, (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Pr., 1957).

31. Islamic Technology: An Illustrated History by Ahmad Y. al-Hassan and Donald Hill, Cambridge University Press, 1986.

32. Aydin Sayili, The Observatory in Islam and its place in the General History of the Observatory (Ankara: 1960).

33. Abdus Salam, Ideals and Realities: Selected Essays of Abdus Salam (Philadelphia: World Scientific, 1987).

34. Moore, Keith L. (January 1986). “A scientist’s interpretation of references to embryology in the Qur’an“. Journal of the Islamic Medical Association.


[1] See Makky, Ahmad A.; and other. 1993. Ee’jaz al-Quran al-Kareem fee wasf Anwa’ al-Riyah, al-sohob. Makkah: Commission on Scientific Sign of the Quran and Sunnah, p. 55

[2] The Muslim’s Belief, by Muhammad al-Uthaimin, translated by Dr. Maneh al-Johari. P. 65

[3] The true religion, by Bilal Philips p.125.

[4] Neufeld, V. 1994. Webster’s New World Dictionary. Third College Edition. New York; Prentice Hall. P 236.

[5] Nafiu Baba Ahmed, Secretary General of the Supreme Council for Sharia in Nigeria, telling the BBC his opinion of polio and vaccination. In northern Nigeria “more than 50% of the children have never been vaccinated against polio,” and as of 2006 and more than half the world’s polio victims live. Nigeria’s struggle to beat polio, BBC News, 31 March 20

[6] . Modern Europe’s industrial culture did not originate in Europe but in the Islamic universities of Andalusia and of the East. The principle of the experimental method was an offshoot of the Islamic concept and its explanation of the physical world, its phenomena, its forces and its secrets.” From: Qutb, Sayyad, Milestones, p.111.

[7] . Islam and science – unhappy bedfellows”, Pervez Hoodbhoy, 2006. Formerly at http://www.globalagendamagazine.com/2006/Hoodbhoy.asp (dead link can be accessed in the Internet archive).

[9] . is one of the worlds most famous geologists. He is a Professor of Geology and the Chairman of the Department of Geology at the Institute of Geosciences, Johannes Gutenburg University, Mainz, Germany.

[10] He is the Chairman of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Professor of Molecular and Human Genetics at the Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA

[11] . Course Director and Associate Professor of Medical Embryology at the Department of Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA

[12] a professor emeritus in the division of anatomy (department of surgery), former Chair of anatomy and associate dean for Basic Medical Sciences (Faculty of Medicine) at the University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada

[13] He is Professor Emeritus of Anatomy and Developmental Biology at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. There, for 22 years he was Professor of Anatomy, the Chairman of the Department of Anatomy, and the Director of the Daniel Baugh Institute. He was also the President of the Teratology Society.

[14] He is the Chairman of the Department of Anatomy at Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. Previously, he was the Dean of the Faculty of Medicine at the same university.

[15] . He is Professor of Anatomy, Professor of Pediatrics and Child Health, and Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences at the University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. There, he was the Chairman of the Department of Anatomy for 16 years.

[16] . He is is a well-known marine scientist. He is Professor of Geological Sciences at the University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA. He was formerly the Dean of the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science at the University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA

[17] He is Professor Emeritus at Tokyo University, Hongo, Tokyo, Japan, and was the Director of the National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo, Japan.

[18] . Mehdi Golshani, Does science offer evidence of a transcendent reality and purpose?, June 2003.

[19] . Qutb, Sayyid, Milestones, p.112

[20] . Qur’an and Science, Encyclopedia of the Qur’an.

[21] . Stark, Rodney, The Victory of Reason, Random House, 2005, p.20-1

[22] . Ahmad Dallal, Encyclopedia of the Qur’an, Quran and science.

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~ oleh ANUAR AHMAD di Februari 25, 2009.

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